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What is Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery?

LiFePo4 batteries are reliable power supplies with high performance and high performance. They actively displace not only old lead acid but also modern Li-ion batteries. Today, the
 battery is not only found in long-lasting equipment but also in household appliances - from smartphones to electricity.

LFP batteries were introduced by the Massachusetts University of Technology in 2003. Its basis is an advanced Li-ion technology with varying composition: lithium ferrophosphate is used 
for the anode instead of lithium cobaltate. The battery is widely distributed thanks to companies such as Motorola and Qualcomm.

How is LiFePO4 Batteries produced?

It is supplied to the main factory in the form of a dark gray powder with a metallic luster for the production of LiFePo4 batteries. The production schemes of anodes and cathodes are the
 same, but due to the inadmissibility of mixing components, all technological operations are carried out in different workshops. All production is divided into several stages.
The first step: The electrodes have been performed. To do this, the finished second is covered with a metal foil (usually aluminum for the cathode and copper for the anode). The foil is kept 
pre-processed by a suspension so that it can function as a current receiver and a conductive element. It is cut into finished elements and folded several times, forming square cells.
Second step: Battery pack directly. Cell-shaped cathodes and anodes are placed on the separator two sides of the porous material and firmly fixed. The formed block is placed in a plastic container,
 filled with electrolyte and sealed.
Last step: Battery charge / discharge test. The charging process causes the voltage to increase gradually so that there is no explosion or ignition due to large noise. It is connected to a powerful
 consumer to discharge the battery. Finished products are sent to the customer without detecting deviations.

Working Principle of LiFePO4 Batteries

LFP batteries consist of electrodes that are firmly pressed into the porous separator on both sides. To power the devices, both the cathode and anode are connected to existing collectors.
 All components are placed in a plastic box filled with electrolyte. A controller is built into the case, which regulates the current supply during charging. The working principle of LiFePo4 
batteries is based on the interaction of lithium ferrophosphate and carbon. The reaction itself proceeds according to the following formula: LiFePO4 + 6C → Li1-xFEPO4 + LiC6 The charge
 carrier of the battery is a positively charged lithium ion. It has the ability to penetrate the crystal lattice of other materials through the formation of chemical bonds.
Features of LiFePO4 Batteries

Regardless of manufacturer, all LFP cells have the same characteristics:

peak voltage - 3.65 V;
voltage at the midpoint - 3.3 V;
voltage in a completely discharged state - 2.0 V;
rated operating voltage - 3.0-3.3 V;
minimum voltage under load - 2.8 V;
endurance - from 2 to 7 thousand charge / discharge cycles;
About self-loading at a temperature of 15-18 C - up to 5% per year.

The technical features presented are particularly relevant to LiFePo4 cells. Depending on how many of these are combined with a battery, the parameters of the batteries will change.
Domestic production samples have the following features:

capacity - up to 2000 Ah;
voltage - 12 v, 24 v, 36 v and 48 v;
at various operating temperatures - about -30 to +60 C;
with charging current - from 4 to 30A.

All batteries do not lose their quality during storage for 15 years, have a constant voltage and are characterized by low toxicity.

Advantages and Disadvantages of LiFePO4 Batteries

LFP batteries are based on Li-ion technology, which allows them to combine all the advantages of these power supplies and at the same time get rid of their own disadvantages. 
Among its main advantages are:

Durability - up to 7,000 cycles.
High charging current that reduces the energy boost time.
Constant operating voltage that does not drop until the charge is completely exhausted.
High peak voltage - 3.65 Volts.
High nominal capacity.
Light - up to a few kilograms
Low environmental pollution during disposal.
Frost resistance - about the work can be done at a temperature of -30 to + 60C.

However, batteries also have disadvantages. The first of these is high cost. The price of one element for 20 Ah can reach 35 thousand rubles. The second and last drawback is the 
difficulty of making a battery yourself, unlike lithium-ion cells. Other obvious drawbacks in these power supplies have yet to be identified.

How to Charge LiFePO4 Batteries?

Chargers of LiFePo4 batteries are practically no different from conventional inverters. In particular, it is possible to save a large current strength at the output of up to 30A, which is used for 
fast charging in cells.
When buying a ready-made battery pack, difficulties with their charging should not arise. In their design, electronic control is integrated, protecting all cells from complete discharge and excessive
 saturation of electricity. Expensive systems use a balancing board that distributes energy evenly between all cells of the device.
When recharging, it is important not to exceed the recommended amperage if you are using third party chargers. This will reduce the battery life several times on a single charge. If the battery 
becomes hot or swollen, the amperage exceeds the allowable values.

Where are LiFePo4 batteries used?

LFP batteries are very important to the industry. They are used to protect the operability of the devices in meteorology stations and hospitals. They are also applied as a buffer in wind farms 
and are used to collect energy from solar panels. Instead of the usual lead-acid elements, 12v batteries are being used in modern cars. LiFePo4 designs are installed as the main power source 
for electric bicycles and ATVs, motor boats. Its widespread importance in daily life. It is embedded in phones, tablets and even screwdrivers. However, such devices differ significantly in price
 from their less technological counterparts. Therefore, meeting them in the market is still difficult.

We can count the usage areas of LiFePO4 batteries as follows;

Radio batteries
Base stations
Electric bicycles
Solar systems
Wind turbines
Power tools and appliances
Space technologies
Camera systems
Golf tools
It is used in many areas such as disabled vehicles.

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